Argument from Design or the Teleological Argument

Arguments for God's Existence

Although Kant rejected the validity of the traditional proofs for God’s existence, he admitted that:

This proof will always deserve to be treated with respect. It is the oldest, the clearest and most in conformity with human reason.… We have nothing to say against the reasonableness and utility of this line of argument, but wish, on the contrary, to commend and encourage it.

This argument is built on a very basic and obvious observation of man:

1 There Is Order and Harmony in Nature

If we look around we see there is a very complex and well fitting arrangement everywhere and in the universe everything happens in such a wonderful way which provides a very friendly surrounding for the harmonious structures, life and man. We see a marvellous unity and concord in nature. The whole universe is a complex system, consisting of strongly correlated and connected parts, subjects to exact laws, developing together in an interdependent way towards a specific purpose.

It would be too long here to list the fields (even without giving details) in which science clearly shows the evidences of regularity, order and harmony. There are other books (or rather libraries) which complete this task. The one who deals with it will recognise it in every part of the remote macro-universe and in the enigmatic behaviour of the micro-universe, in the complex structures of the inorganic and organic matter, in the world of the cell and biological processes, in the behaviour of animals or the dance of bees, in the composition of the human eye or the well co-ordinated functioning of other organs.

Even if some can regard the world from the opposite direction and observe rather imperfection, disharmony, discord or the existence of physical evil, natural calamities, others draw the conclusion from the evolutionary view that nature is ruled by cruel struggle for survival and development is always possible through the oppression of the weak one, there always still remains a large balance on the other side: regularity, order and harmony is obviously present in the universe, life and man finds the best protection even in severe conditions.

2 The Design of the Universe Can Be Explained Neither By Chance, Nor By Natural Laws

The coincidences “by chance” are too well tuned that we can explain them by “chance”. Chance is not an explanation but renouncing to explanation. Scientists explain natural phenomena by assuming that the effects have their causes. Generally there are no doubts in applying this principle in the case of those phenomena for which man has already found a certain explanation, but there are some difficult questions for which science hasn’t found an answer yet. If they are more complex questions, why should we give up the logical inference that they need more complex explanation and not just the contrary, the chance or chaos which is accepted as the simplest?

Does the theory of evolution give sufficient explanation?

Many claim that the theory of evolution gives the explanation for the development of the universe and life, instead of God. But there are many other serious scientists who testify that just the very opposite is true. Even from the evolutionary standpoint the universe doesn’t show disorder but a marvellous design which will lead the honest scientist to a humble wondering that everything happened in such a well adjusted way that, despite so many hindrances and great gaps between the different steps, it was possible to reach the appearance of life and at the top of evolution man with conscience who can admire today all these things. Isn’t it rather a clear evidence for a highest intelligent design?

Following the formulation of William Paley concerning a man who found a watch, and concluded that it must have been made by a watchmaker, Voltaire resumed:

If a watch proves the existence of a watchmaker but the universe does not prove the existence of a great Architect, then I consent to be called a fool.

Now, if somebody finds an automated factory that produces watches without any human intervention, will not he think that it must have been designed by a higher intelligence? In the same way, scientific theories will never show that everything can explain itself but rather they will make even clearer how wonderful this world is and everything functions in a fitting order, therefore it requires a more intelligent supernatural Creator.

The fact is that the theory of evolution, at least at the present stage, can give a sufficient answer neither for the purposeful development, because it contains great gaps in the chain of explanations, nor for the origin of the universe, the origin of life, origin of species or the origin of human spirit. Even if many people hope that it is a question of time and once mankind will find explanation for everything, there are serious reasons to doubt it. But even if we find a sufficient explanation of how something happened, it doesn’t mean that it happened by itself. Even the best scientific explanation or the most comprehensive or general theory would not explain why the natural laws are just these and why just these processes must happen. Science can explain many details of the cosmos but it can not grasp questions that are outside its frame.

3 Therefore the Design of the Universe Can Be Explained Completely Satisfactorily for Human Mankind By an Intelligent Supernatural Designer That We Can Believe in Him and It Does Not Leave Place for Other Explanations

Natural phenomena do not posses intelligence in themselves and we can not speak about their intentional acting so their purposeful acting can be explained only by the control of a wise being having free will. This argument does not prove in itself the infinity and perfection of the Designer, but it shows at least that He is beyond the universe and is a superior Mind who directs everything towards the fulfilment of a certain aim. We can get to know also something about this aim, at least that everything is guided so that humans owning mind and free will able to love come into existence.

Science can only be created by those who are thoroughly imbued with the aspiration toward truth and understanding. This source of feeling, however, springs from the sphere of religion. To this there also belongs the faith in the possibility that the regulations valid for the world of existence are rational, that is, comprehensible to reason. I cannot conceive of a genuine scientist without that profound faith. The situation may be expressed by an image: science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind. (A. Einstein)

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