Conspiracy Theories—A Christian Answer

The aim of this article

The assumption that conspiracies are behind various events is very widespread today, even in religious circles. In our article, we do not want to engage you in an analysis of the truth or falsehood of particular conspiracy theories. Instead, we want to look at some biblical principles which can help you find a very different approach to the labyrinth of conspiracies. There are, in fact, a number of attitudes which the Bible disapproves of and which are common to all conspiracy theories. We encourage everyone who honestly seeks the truth to find a clear assessment of these attitudes. Since we are Christians, this article is mainly aimed at those who are familiar with the Bible. However, even if you are not, we hope that our article, with our comments on the biblical passages quoted, will also make sense to you.

1 Introduction—The World of Conspiracies

Our world is very corrupt. Many people pursue their selfish aims. They thirst for money and power over others. In business and politics, people often come to agreement on these evil interests. Sometimes they try to hide their plans from the public. Such conspiracies have occurred many times in world history and have greatly affected its course.1

However, we must carefully distinguish between these real, proven conspiracies and what have come to be known as conspiracy theories. Conspiracy theories are but speculations about how politicians, governments or successful businessmen influence almost every aspect of our daily lives. Many of these theories are politically-related such as the September 11 attacks or Holocaust denial. Others question basic scientific facts such as the Earth being round. There are also conspiracy theories that link several specific theories together.

Generally speaking, conspiracy theories create a world in which

  • nothing is by chance,
  • nothing is as it appears and
  • everything is connected.2

It is a world where you can trust no one and nothing. It is a world of fear where those in power determine the fate and destinies of individuals and even entire countries. It is a world in which you can only rely on yourself. Conspiracy theorists suggest that you can only protect yourself by possessing all the information you need to see through the dangers that lie at every turn.

2 “All the earth is mine”—God, the Master of History

Conspiracy theories ascribe total control to humans over the events in our world. However, the Bible repeatedly emphasizes that God’s providence is continually present here, even after the Fall. Believers found peace and rest in this firm faith, as Psalm 23:1–4 expresses it3:

The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.
He makes me lie down in green pastures.
He leads me beside still waters.
He restores my soul.
He leads me in paths of righteousness for his name’s sake.
Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,
I will fear no evil, for you are with me […]

In the eight century BC, God’s people in Judah were faced with a conspiracy that threatened their very existence. The neighbouring kingdoms of Israel and Syria wanted to attack Judah and depose Ahaz, its king. They planned to install their own man as king in Ahaz’s place, who would then support their political aims. In the face of this threat, the people of Judah “shook as the trees of the forest shake before the wind” (Isaiah 7:2). In this desperate hour the prophet Isaiah addressed the following words of comfort and warning to his people:

For the Lord spoke thus to me with his strong hand upon me, and warned me not to walk in the way of this people, saying: “Do not call conspiracy all that this people calls conspiracy, and do not fear what they fear, nor be in dread. But the Lord of hosts, him you shall honour as holy. Let him be your fear, and let him be your dread. And he will become a sanctuary4 […] (Isaiah 8:11–14)

This conspiracy certainly stirred up the people of Judah. They panicked about what would take place. Although it was a real conspiracy, Isaiah told them not to call it such, because doing so just increased their fear. Rather, he turned their attention to fearing and honouring God instead of worrying about this danger. They should trust God’s goodness and protection, which would give them inner peace. Thus, God would eventually save them from the hostile armies. People who do not fear and honour God, do not experience his daily care. They easily open up for news about dangers and frightening conspiracies.

Some conspiracy theories are circulated by religious groups, who connect them with faith. But conspiracy theories generally do not count on God’s providence. Though the Bible does not play down the power of evil, it upholds that evil can never be stronger than God. God is the Creator and Sustainer of the world. Scripture consistently describes him as the master of history, who is above all influential rulers:

Blessed be the name of God forever and ever, to whom belong wisdom and might. He changes times and seasons; he removes kings and sets up kings […] (Daniel 2:20–21)

So Pilate said to him, “You will not speak to me? Do you not know that I have authority to release you and authority to crucify you?” Jesus answered him, “You would have no authority over me at all unless it had been given you from above. […]” (John 19:10–11)

God is not indifferent to what is going on with his creatures here below. It was always his aim to reveal his loving being to humankind and save us. Therefore, he takes part in our history to lead it to a good end, even if it be through many difficulties: he made a people for himself, led them into the Land of Promise and preserved them throughout the stormy events of the first millennium before Christ. Finally, in due time, in Jesus, God literally entered history.

Jesus was opposed by many and those in power conspired against him to put him out of the way (Acts 4:24–28). However, he confronted their evil plans with his love, humility and self-surrender. Jesus’ solution was not to flee from evil, but to respond to it out of deep trust in his Father for whom “all things are possible” (Mark 14:36). That was his way of fighting against evil. Though they killed him, they could not stop God from working out his plan of salvation. Jesus rose and he is here with us:

And Jesus came and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. […] And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age.” (Matthew 28:18, 20)

People who believe will experience God’s presence and power in their lives. But those who often dwell on the power of evil and rely on their knowledge to prevail against it, lose sight of God.

3 “Overcome Evil with Good”—Setting the Right Priorities

Scripture encourages believers to set the right priorities. They ought to use their short, precious time here for working for good, and for making God’s love known to others. Instead of spending your time finding out about supposed evil, do good and love others. Look after their needs rather than feeding your curiosity and desire for dubious knowledge.

And let us not grow weary of doing good, for in due season we will reap, if we do not give up. So then, as we have opportunity, let us do good to everyone, and especially to those who are of the household of faith. (Galatians 6:9–10)

Finally, brothers, whatever is true, whatever is honourable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of praise, think about these things. What you have learned and received and heard and seen in me—practise these things, and the God of peace will be with you. (Philippians 4:8–9)

Being filled with God’s word and peace, and being equipped with his wisdom and goodness is the only way to recognize and overcome evil.

[…] overcome evil with good. (Romans 12:21)

Dealing with some theoretical evil outside of you, distracts you from noticing a more dangerous evil: the evil hidden inside you.

And he said, “What comes out of a person is what defiles him. For from within, out of the heart of man, come evil thoughts, sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery, coveting, wickedness, deceit, sensuality, envy, slander, pride, foolishness. All these evil things come from within, and they defile a person.” (Mark 7:20–23)

By living in sin you yourself become a slave to sin and a partaker of the evil you mean to criticize. We can become free through knowing the Truth. We can get to know this truth by keeping Jesus’ words. This truth is liberating. It sets us free to enjoy the eternal fellowship with God and remain in his house forever:

“If you abide in my word, you are truly my disciples, and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.” They answered him, “We are offspring of Abraham and have never been enslaved to anyone. How is it that you say, ‘You will become free’?” Jesus answered them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, everyone who commits sin is a slave to sin. The slave does not remain in the house forever; the son remains forever. So if the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed.” (John 8:31–36)

People usually do not like to think of themselves as slaves to sin. They do not want their sins to be uncovered. Conspiracy theories focus on external enemies and in this way distract you from the reality about yourself.

And this is the judgement: the light has come into the world, and people loved the darkness rather than the light because their works were evil. For everyone who does wicked things hates the light and does not come to the light, lest his works should be exposed. (John 3:19–20)

Analysing bad things suggested by conspiracy theories cannot bring about any significant spiritual improvement in one’s life. Doesn’t wasting time on conspiracy theories show that someone does not actively strive to do what is best?

Apart from conspiracy theories there are many other things out there that seem to be interesting or even useful to deal with. However, we ought to ask God whether it is really that “one necessary thing” which remains for ever, as Mary did:

Now as they went on their way, Jesus entered a village. And a woman named Martha welcomed him into her house. And she had a sister called Mary, who sat at the Lord’s feet and listened to his teaching. But Martha was distracted with much serving. And she went up to him and said, “Lord, do you not care that my sister has left me to serve alone? Tell her then to help me.” But the Lord answered her, “Martha, Martha, you are anxious and troubled about many things, but one thing is necessary. Mary has chosen the good portion, which will not be taken away from her.” (Luke 10:38–42)

4 “You shall not bear false witness”—Responsibility for Your Views

Conspiracy theories tend to make far-reaching claims. However, far-reaching claims require equally solid and verifiable evidence. Characteristically, the evidence conspiracy theories offer is controversial and built on speculation.In contrast, the Bible teaches us to carefully weigh what is true. The apostle Paul says that we ought to test everything and hold fast only to what is good (1 Thessalonians 5:21). God holds everyone responsible for what they think, do and say. Jesus taught the people this way:

I tell you, on the day of judgement people will give account for every careless word they speak, for by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned. (Matthew 12:36–37)

Jesus said these words in response to being publicly accused of driving out demons with the help of Satan (see verses 22–35 in the same chapter). Some Jews wanted to turn the crowd against Jesus by slandering him this way. Passing on false information, even if you believe it is true, may influence others and have severe consequences for many, as the following passage illustrates:

After this the king of the Ammonites died, and Hanun his son reigned in his place. And David said, “I will deal loyally with Hanun the son of Nahash, as his father dealt loyally with me.” So David sent his servants to console him concerning his father. And David’s servants came into the land of the Ammonites. But the princes of the Ammonites said to Hanun their lord, “Do you think, because David has sent comforters to you, that he is honouring your father? Has not David sent his servants to you to search the city and to spy it out and to overthrow it?” So Hanun took David’s servants and shaved off half the beard of each and cut off their garments in the middle, at their hips, and sent them away. (2 Samuel 10:1–4)

Ill-treating David’s servants based on the false supposition of the princes resulted in wars with many casualties and suffering. You are responsible for checking the credibility of the information you intend to share, because it may trigger a series of events that will affect the lives of others.5 That is why Scripture is very stern on spreading news and accusations that are not based on thorough investigation.

If a malicious witness takes the stand to accuse someone of a crime, the two people involved in the dispute must stand in the presence of the Lord before the priests and the judges who are in office at the time. The judges must make a thorough investigation, and if the witness proves to be a liar, giving false testimony against a fellow Israelite, then do to the false witness as that witness intended to do to the other party. You must purge the evil from among you. The rest of the people will hear of this and be afraid, and never again will such an evil thing be done among you. (Deuteronomy 19:16–20)

Worst of all, false information may cost lives:

You shall do no injustice in court. […] You shall not go around as a slanderer among your people, and you shall not stand up against the life of your neighbour: I am the Lord. (Leviticus 19:15–16)

It has never been as easy as nowadays in our digital world to share false or unevidenced information with thousands of people with just a click. But have you ever weighed the far-reaching consequences that a single click may have? Take the example of the COVID-19 epidemic: in some countries, spreading disinformation resulted in the collapse of the local health-care systems and even violence against utterly overburdened medical staff who risked their own lives to save others.6 Corona left many dead, and children orphaned7 in its wake. Whether or not the reported death toll is inflated, many of our fellow humans are not with us anymore. You may have been just one of the thousands who “liked” and “shared” a post containing a COVID-related idea, but that does not lessen your responsibility for its consequences.

God is holy and true through and through. We can be near him only if we follow him in these things.

O Lord, who shall sojourn in your tent?
Who shall dwell on your holy hill?
He who walks blamelessly and does what is right
and speaks truth in his heart;
who does not slander with his tongue
and does no evil to his neighbour,
nor takes up a reproach against his friend; […] (Psalm 15:1–3)

What you spread about others often reveals who you really are. People like to appear as fighters for something good and righteous. Blaming others gives them this opportunity. This attitude is an ancient evil that has brought much suffering and alienation into our world so far.

5 “Honour the king”—Respecting the Authorities

Through disinformation, conspiracy theories spread distrust in public institutions, and in those who are in charge of making important decisions in politics, economy, health care and the like. Eventually, this leads to social unrest, anarchy, and it fuels hate crimes.

The Bible presents a realistic view of the frequent hypocrisy, egotism and wickedness of politicians and governments. At the same time, however, it does acknowledge and appreciate the useful function of political authorities in maintaining order, certain morals, peace and well-being.

Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. Consequently, whoever rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves… Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also as a matter of conscience. This is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God’s servants, who give their full time to governing. Give to everyone what you owe them: if you owe taxes, pay taxes; if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honour, then honour. (Romans 13:1–2, 5–7 NIVUK)

These words were not meant to be absolute. Submission here refers to specific aspects such as paying taxes. Yet several examples in the Bible teach us that “we should obey God more than people” (Acts 5:29) even at the cost of trouble or death. The strong testimony given by early Christians who bore fierce persecution was not that of protesters, whistleblowers and rebels. They were humble, loving and clear about the truth, as Jesus was.

Throughout his ministry the apostle Paul experienced ill-treatment from officials and authorities. In spite of this, Paul encourages his brothers and sisters to consider the value of authorities as a whole, and not on the level of individuals. Inasmuch as the authorities do not demand submission in matters that compromise justice, morality, faith and obedience to God, we owe them respect and submission. Peter writes in a similar way:

Submit yourselves for the Lord’s sake to every human institution, whether to a king as the one in authority, or to governors as sent by him for the punishment of evildoers and the praise of those who do right. For such is the will of God, that by doing right you silence the ignorance of foolish people. Act as free people, and do not use your freedom as a covering for evil, but use it as bond-servants of God. Honor all people, love the brotherhood, fear God, honor the king. (1 Peter 2:13–17, NASB)

It is for the “Lord’s sake” that we are to submit. By doing so, we do not lose our freedom. True freedom is not achieved by protest and opposition, but by shunning evil and living holy lives. Giving this testimony is the way Christians challenge others.

A Christian, just as every member of society, depends on the decisions of those who are in high positions. Generally speaking, authorities do a lot to provide the basic necessities of their particular country. Keeping healthcare, the economy, transport, security, the courts, etc. running, requires a great amount of administration and organisation. Although governments also make many bad decisions, Scripture urges Christians to give thanks to God for the stability that comes from the service of decision-makers, and to pray for the continuation of that stability:

First of all, then, I urge that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and thanksgivings be made for all people, for kings and all who are in high positions, that we may lead a peaceful and quiet life, godly and dignified in every way. This is good, and it is pleasing in the sight of God our Saviour, who desires all people to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth. (1 Timothy 2:1–4)

This attitude stands in strong contrast to the rebellious, ungrateful and distrustful approach that underlies conspiracy theories.

Before leaving this passage, we would like to mention two things:

Firstly, the prayer in this passage is not made for the conversion of pagan rulers. If it were, the statement “for all who are in high positions” would mean that Christians ought to pray for the conversion of all authorities without exception. This cannot be the case, as Christians were sober-minded and under no illusions that authorities like Pontius Pilate or Emperor Nero (who initiated the first, barbarous persecution of Christians) would ever embrace the Christian faith. Rather, the aim of intercession here is that God may give wisdom and consideration to the authorities in their decisions, thus enabling us to live under peaceful conditions that promote the spreading of the Gospel (Proverbs 8:15–16, Jeremiah 29:7).

Secondly, we cannot take this passage as an absolute guideline for all situations. The supplications and thanksgivings presuppose basic good intentions and the openness of the authorities to govern responsibly. Therefore, Paul’s entreaty in the passage above cannot refer to openly oppressive, inhumane and invasive governments. Christians, just like anyone else of good moral standards, would disagree and resist submission to evil laws. For example, Christians would never hail Adolf Hitler8 or hand over Jewish fugitives for execution.

Jesus did not want his disciples to stir up social unrest or to protest using violence. These are not God’s means.

And when those who were around him saw what would follow, they said, “Lord, shall we strike with the sword?” And one of them struck the servant of the high priest and cut off his right ear. But Jesus said, “No more of this!” And he touched his ear and healed him. (Luke 22:49–51)

My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would have been fighting, that I might not be delivered over to the Jews. But my kingdom is not from the world. (John 18:36)

For Christians, dissatisfaction, violent opposition and rebellion are not the solution to the problems in this world. However, this does not mean being indifferent: Christians are responsible for the people around them. The difference in approach is that, while Christians strive to fulfil their duties in society, they are aware of a much higher aim. Although they try to make the world a more righteous and better place to live, they know that there is an afterlife. This fundamentally affects their means of fighting against oppression and other evils. Just like their Lord, they oppose evil by their readiness to bear it patiently, to suffer and love others and even to be ready to die. They know that the present world will always fall short of perfection and of God’s glory, and so it is not their final home. However, according to God’s promise they are waiting “for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells” (2 Peter 3:13).

Here it is worth quoting a second-century Christian writing that gives a brief insight into Christian conduct and attitudes:

They pass their days on earth, but they are citizens of heaven. They obey the prescribed laws, and at the same time surpass the laws by their lives. They love all men, and are persecuted by all. They are unknown and condemned; they are put to death, and restored to life. (For the context of this quote click here: For the Christians are distinguished from other men neither by country, nor language, nor the customs which they observe. For they neither inhabit cities of their own, nor employ a peculiar form of speech, nor lead a life which is marked out by any singularity. The course of conduct which they follow has not been devised by any speculation or deliberation of inquisitive men; nor do they, like some, proclaim themselves the advocates of any merely human doctrines. But, inhabiting Greek as well as barbarian cities, according as the lot of each of them has determined, and following the customs of the natives in respect to clothing, food, and the rest of their ordinary conduct, they display to us their wonderful and confessedly striking method of life. They dwell in their own countries, but simply as sojourners. As citizens, they share in all things with others, and yet endure all things as if foreigners. Every foreign land is to them as their native country, and every land of their birth as a land of strangers. They marry, as do all [others]; they beget children; but they do not destroy their offspring. They have a common table, but not a common bed. They are in the flesh, but they do not live after the flesh. They pass their days on earth, but they are citizens of heaven. They obey the prescribed laws, and at the same time surpass the laws by their lives. They love all men, and are persecuted by all. They are unknown and condemned; they are put to death, and restored to life.)

6 “God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble.”

God loves those who have a humble heart. He is near to those who acknowledge their neediness, their limitations and lowliness. Unfortunately, you seldom meet people like that. We often prefer rather to appear strong and to be better than others, not just to be one among many, but to be special. Conspiracy theories strongly feed these desires.

Our world is immensely complex. There is a lot of information to process. If you believe in conspiracy theories, you assume that you have the overview; you see through and assess the events of today and the past. You feel you know the “real” reasons behind what is going on.

The wish to be wise and to be able on one’s own to decide what is good and evil destroyed the relationship between God and man. This is visible in the story of the Fall.

Now the serpent was more crafty than any other beast of the field that the Lord God had made. He said to the woman, “Did God actually say, ‘You shall not eat of any tree in the garden’?” And the woman said to the serpent, “We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden, but God said, ‘You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the midst of the garden, neither shall you touch it, lest you die.’ ” But the serpent said to the woman, “You will not surely die. For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate, and she also gave some to her husband who was with her, and he ate. (Genesis 3:1–6)

Man did not want God to lead him and show him what was best for him. He overestimated himself and crossed the borders God set him.

People make many wrong decisions in their lives because they do not ask God but follow their own ideas. Man does not even have clarity about his own life. How can he think that he has the overview of what is happening in the world? Isn’t it very arrogant to think that you know it better than the vast majority of people? Can all the scientific research, historical documents and experience gathered independently throughout centuries all over the globe, and a lot of common sense be outweighed by what you read in a book or found on the internet? Though the source of this information may claim to be authoritative, the “knowledge” you have gained is mostly not the result of thorough investigation. Fear, excitement or seeking confirmation for their views make people susceptible to accepting sensational theories without weighing the arguments for both sides in an unbiased way. Instead, they decide from the outset what is true and what is not because their own opinion has become the standard of right and wrong.

Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who put darkness for light and light for darkness, who put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter! Woe to those who are wise in their own eyes, and shrewd in their own sight! (Isaiah 5:20–21)

Be not wise in your own eyes; fear the Lord, and turn away from evil. (Proverbs 3:7)

Often conspiracy theorists think that they are seeking the truth, which makes their actions and motives seem noble. Their attitude towards others, however, reveals a different aim. This “knowledge” they think they have, inevitably leads them, though perhaps unaware, to look down on the “uninformed”, the “sheeple“9 who are just blindly following the mainstream. It is the wish to be special and to possess special knowledge that drives them and makes them disrespectful and unloving.

But knowledge puffs up while love builds up. (1 Corinthians 8:1, NIV)

Who is wise and understanding among you? By his good conduct let him show his works in the meekness of wisdom. But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition in your hearts, do not boast and be false to the truth. This is not the wisdom that comes down from above, but is earthly, unspiritual, demonic. For where jealousy and selfish ambition exist, there will be disorder and every vile practice. But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, open to reason, full of mercy and good fruits, impartial and sincere. (James 3:13–17)

By nature, conspiracy theories are critical of mainstream ideas. They are popular among those who consider themselves “freethinkers”, who like to be independent and not to submit to anyone. This freedom in thinking, however, is one-sided because while looking for things to be sceptical about, they are not sceptical about themselves. They are so busy looking for the evil in the world that they don’t see the evil inside themselves. This, however, is the prerequisite for finding the real truth. Only when we are ready to see and admit who we really are in the eyes of God in our neediness, our limitations and lowliness can we really be free.

O Lord, my heart is not lifted up;
my eyes are not raised too high;
I do not occupy myself with things
too great and too marvellous for me.
But I have calmed and quietened my soul,
like a weaned child with its mother;
like a weaned child is my soul within me. (Psalm 131:1–2)

7 Postscript

Now that we have come to the end of our article, we would like to leave you with some questions and encouragements to consider.

Perhaps you spent a lot of time and effort getting informed about a conspiracy. You may feel that you have obtained some important insight and know more than most. However, what have you really gained, and how does your finding profit others?

Did it give you strength to love others, even your enemies?

Did it give you rest and increase your trust in God?

Did it help you grow in humility?

Did it help you uncover and overcome your own sins?

… and most importantly: did you get closer to God?

Before becoming Christians, some of us were entangled in the myriad of conspiracy-ideas. You may not be aware of it, but it is truly an imprisonment. Being “up-to-date” and “prepared” for all the apparent dangers robs you of the very essential things God would like to present you with: his presence, love, peace, reconciliation and genuine fulfilment. All these are things indispensable for Christian life. It is not by knowing things that God wants to give you self-esteem, nourishment and stability, but by “being known by him”:

[…] if I have prophetic powers, and understand all mysteries and all knowledge […] but have not love, I am nothing. (1 Corinthians 13:2)

If anyone imagines that he knows something, he does not yet know as he ought to know. But if anyone loves God, he is known by God. (1 Corinthians 8:2–3)

If you would like to think more about certain aspects mentioned in this article, or if you have questions and would like to understand things deeper, feel free to write to us. We would be glad to hear from you and think about God’s view together.

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  1. Some examples: the assassination of Julius Caesar which eventually led to the establishment of Roman emperorship ( on 28. 12. 2022) or the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact whose secret protocol was revealed only after World War II (see Wikipedia:  (retrieved on 28. 12. 2022)  
  2. Summary according to Michael Barkun, an American academic who serves as Professor Emeritus of political science; in “September 11th through Conspiracists’ Eyes”, page 2— (retrieved on 18. 02. 2022)  
  3. Similarly, in Matthew 10:29–31, Jesus encouraged his disciples not to be afraid of their persecutors, but to trust the Father who cares even for the least of his creatures. 
  4. According to the Amplified Bible explanation the sanctuary is “a sacred, indestructible shelter for those who fear and trust Him” 
  5. An example of this is the arson attacks on mobile towers and the abuse of telecommunication workers based on beliefs that 5G mobile networks spread the coronavirus: (retrieved on 18. 02. 2022). See also on CNET: (retrieved on 18. 02. 2022)  
  6. Some sources of this among many others: The Guardian— (retrieved on 18. 02. 2022) and BBC News— (retrieved on 18. 02. 2022)  
  7. (retrieved on 20. 06. 2022), (retrieved on 20. 06. 2022), (retrieved on 20. 06. 2022)  
  8. Adolf Hitler, a German chancellor (1933–1945) and the leader of the Nazi (National-Socialist) Party; responsible for World War II. His nationalist ideology led to the Holocaust, the genocide of about six million Jews and millions of other victims. Hailing refers to the greeting gesture of raising your hand to show loyalty to Hitler, which had become compulsory for all Germans. 
  9. Cambridge Dictionary defines this word as: people who copy what other people do or believe what they are told and do not think for themselves. Sheeple is a combination of the words sheep and people. (